The Centre of Research Excellence researchers have a new published paper “Role of the duodenal microbiota in functional dyspepsia”- a collaborative effort between Georgia Brown, Emily C. Hoedt, Simon Keely, Ayesha Shah, Marjorie M. Walker, Gerald Holtmann and Nicholas J. Talley. Summary: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common and debilitating gastrointestinal disorder attributed to altered gut-brain interactions. While the etiology of FD remains unknown, emerging research suggests the mechanisms are likely multifactorial and heterogenous among patient subgroups. Small bowel motor disturbances, visceral hypersensitivity, chronic microinflammation, and increased intestinal tract permeability have all been linked to the pathogenesis of FD. Recently, alterations to the gut microbiome have also been implicated as playing an important role in the disorder. Changes to the duodenal microbiota may either trigger or be a consequence of immune and neuronal disturbances observed in the disease, but the mechanisms of influence of small intestinal flora on gastrointestinal function and symptomatology are unknown.This review summarizes and synthesises the literature on the link between the microbiota, low-grade inflammatory changes in the duodenum and FD. This review is not intended to provide a complete overview of FD or the small intestinal microbiota, but instead outline some of the key conceptual advances in understanding the interactions between altered gastrointestinal bacterial communities; dietary factors; host immune activation; and stimulation of the gut–brain axes in patients with FD versus controls. Current and emerging treatment approaches such as dietary interventions and antibiotic or probiotic use that have demonstrated symptom benefits for patients are reviewed, and their role in modulating the host–microbiota is discussed. Finally, suggested opportunities for diagnostic and therapeutic improvements for patients with this condition are presented.To view the paper, follow the link here.